The Russian Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO) is the head institute in fisheries that coordinates implementation of fishery research plans and programs ensuring the efficient operation of all fishery research organization in the Russian Federation. It was established on October 17th, 1933.

The history of creating and development of VNIRO represents the national fishery research advances in general. Almost every modern fishery research institute once operated as a VNIRO branch.

The idea of the Institute foundation by itself implied multitasking, comprehensiveness, and interconnection of marine fishery researches, from studying abiotic (physical and chemical) and biotic (phyto- and zooplankton as well as organizm chains) as environmental facrirs of commercial species to evaluating biological and commercial producticity of reservoirs; revealing regularities in hydrobionts distribution and reproduction; and forecasting total allowable catches determined on the basis of sostainable commercial species catching and processing.

Outstanding oceanologists, ichthyologists, industrial fishery specialists and fish processing tecnologists have worked at the Institute since its foundation. Many famous scientists worked as directors of the Institute.

Before the war, VNIRO scientists along with scientists from basin branches and marine stations studied primary resources and habitat in our intracontinental and border seas; worked out methodological basis of their rational use and new equipment for their fishing and processing. In the after-war period the Institute became the leading one in the field of a comprehensive studies of resources in the ocean fishery, artificial reproduction of valuable commercial species, mari-culture as well as fish raw material processing technologies.

During the period of an active oceanic commercial fishing start (1956-1957), fishery research units which had been mainly VNIRO branches and departments were transformed into independent organizations based on the analysis of their operational activities. These newly established organizations worked within the system of the USSR Fishing Industry Ministry and then in the USSR Ministry for Fisheries.

The start of the Russian oceanic fisheries dates back to mid 1950s with the assimilation of fisheries resources in the Norwegian and Northern Seas of the Northern Fishery Basin, the Bering Sea and Alaska Bay in the Pacific Ocean. VNIRO scientists (P.A. Moiseyev, D.E. Gershanovich, L.G. Vinogradov and many others) initiated organizing several Bering Sea Scientific and Fishery Expeditions of VNIRO- TINRO which finished in the 1960s by assimilating several millions of tons of fish and invertebrates. A comprehensive approach to studying new fishery areas, searching and discovering new fishing grounds was worked out in this expedition. Comprehensive research and development of the North Atlantic resources began in the same mid 1950s. It was the experience of these pioneers in the research and prospecting field that allowed the Russian national fisheries to be among the three most advanced fishing countries in the 1960-1980s.

During the course of 1960s – 1980s, active expedition activities of VNIRO in collaboration with basin institutes and searching fleet in the open part World Ocean was as a rule, was accompanied by developing specific recommendations for exploiting living resources, fishing technologies and comprehensive processing. By 1990 Russian fishing fleet had caught millions of tons of hydrobionts in the Word Ocean.

Outstanding biological discoveries in the World Ocean late the 20th century – “horse mackerel band” in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean and “the anchovy” one along the southern polar front area – are closrly associated with the efforts of scientists who worked within the framework of the unified commercial and integrated target programs (ITP).

During these marine expeditions, VNIRO specialists obtained unique date on the World Ocean ichthyofauna and oceanic conditions of fishing areas. At present, we have a number of well known fundamental papers and projects of VNIRO scientists on systematics, ichthygeoography, fish ecology of the World Ocean, on fish and invertebrates of the Arctic and Far East seas. The dicisive priority of VNIRO scientists lies in studying fish reproductive capacity, ichthyoplankton, its species composition, ecological and geographic variability, adaptation peculiarities, as well as surviving and mortality rates of the wild fish eggs and larva. A significant part of famous ichthyofauna collections in Russia and abroad were made exactly over the same and by VNIRO specialists in particular.

 

History in years

1933–1945

17.10.1933The State Oceanographic Institute (GOIN) and the All-Russian Research Institute of Marine Fishery (VNIIMORKh) were united into the All-Union Research Institute of Marine Fishery and Oceanography (VNIRO) by order of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Provision No. 1675.

 

27-30.11.1933 Sesson of theUSSR Academy of Sciences was devoted to the reconstruction and regulation of the Volga-Caspian basin. In his report, academican N.M. Knipovich warned about serious consequences of these projects for fisheries.

 

1933-1934Studies of seasonal distribution of Caspian herring were carried out. Their total potential catch was estimated 150-200 thousand tons. Recommendations on fishery operations (started in 1934) were given. // Acclimatization of Black Sea mullets in the Caspian Sea was successfully fulfilled (B.S.Ilyin). // First studies on the food relations of the North Caspian Sea fish species were carried out (A.A.Shorygin).

 

1934-1935 Successful acclimatization of food organisms (polychaetes Nereis and bivalve clam arba from the Azov Sea) in order to increase the food supply for sturgeons in the North Caspian Sea was fulfiled. Refilling food supply ensured the growth of sturgeon stocks in the Caspian Sea up to the mid 1970s.

 

1934-1938 Owing to the VNIRO efforts (L.S. Berdichevsky) scientific exploratory fishing in the North Caspian Sea was set up. Based on this experience. VNIRO methodically guided the work of all the basin exploration fishing units in the post-war years.

 

1935 The first All-Caspian Scientific Fishery Conference made conclusions following the long-term work of TsNIRKh and VNIRO. The reports included valuable information on biology of commercial fish species before the regulation of rivers run - off // starts it publishing activity.

 

1935-1940 The quantitative and qualitative composition of the North Caspian benthos was studied and food supply for the main commercial – bentonophag fish species evaluated (A.A.Shorygin).

 

1937 The elaborated method of nitrogen balance defining the rate of food passage made it possible to justifya revolutionary new approach to identify fish diets (V.A. Meyen, S.G. Karzinkin, V.S. Ivlev, Lipin, E.V. Sheyn).

 

1937-40Comprehensive studies on the fishing and whale catching techniques were carried out.

 

1937-1941 Experimental work on sturgeon rearing began in the Volga and Kura rivers.

 

1938-1939Spawning grounds, ecological conditions and biology of fry of anadromous and semi-anadromous fish species in the Volga - Caspian basin were studied to estimate the scale of aquaculture activities (V.A. Meyen, N.I. Kozhin).

 

1938-1945 A scientific basis for young sturgeon and inconnu rearing was worked out (B.G. Chalikov, G.S.Karzinkin).

 

1939 Scientific foundations of food relations of fishes in marine ecosystem in the Caspian Sea were worked out (A.A. Shorygin).

 

1940 “Atlas of Commercial Fish Distribution Maps in the North Caspian Sea” (L.S. Berdichevsky) was complied. // The fish which was first spawning and the one spawning again was possible to be identified by the spawning markings on their scale (G.N. Monastyrsky).

 

1941 A.A. Lazarevsky worked out the techniques of physical and chemical research of fish products and marine animals processing.

 

1944 The fundamental studies of fish ovogenesis were carried out. A new scale of fish maturity was developed based on the histological data. It was specified that following the influence of ecological conditions fish can not only have certain stages of ovocyte development changed, but can also alter the type of spawning. The possibility of spawning omission by fish was proved and changes in the speed of a reproductive system development under various ecological conditions were studied (V.A. Meyen).

 

1945 A high appreciation of VNIRO input in studying the methods of evaluation and forecasting catching in the Northern Caspian Sea in the 30s was given (academ. L.S. Berg and A.N. Svetovidov).

 

1946-1954

1945-1952 Information on the existing methods of catching and construction of catching equipment was generalized under the guidance of N.N. Andreev, I.N. Skvortsov and A.I. Tretschev. As a result of the work done albums and catalogs of catching equipment were published.

 

1946-1947VNIRO specialists group set off to the first Antarctic expedition on the Soviet Antarctic Whaling Fleet “The Glory”. During the expedition the first soviet studies in the Antarctic Region on biology and distribution of cetaceans and Antarctic krill were carried out and valuable hydrological and oceanological data were collected.

 

1948 A series of fish pumps (RB-100, RB-150, RB-200 and etc.) for fish selecting from different fishing gear were designed and introduced. The authors (A.V. Terentyev and B.N. Miller) were honored with the USSR State Award. // VNIRO specialists started participating in the Scientific Committee of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICW).

 

1948-1951 VNIRO specialists solved the problem of breeding life food for sturgeon fries growing.

 

1948-1949 The technique of single pasteurization of black caviar was designed and introduced first time in the world. This allowed preserving the high quality of surgeon caviar within 8-12 months (T.I. Makarova).

 

1948-1949 The Baltic scientific and fishery expedition organized by the order of the USSR Council of Ministers gave a scientific ground for the development of fishery in the Baltic Republics and Kaliningrad region.

 

1948-1952 Following the results of 33 voyages within the framework of the united North Sea Scientific Fishery Expedition of VNIRO and Azov-Black Sea Research and Development Institute (AzCherNIRO), fish supply was determined, terms and ways of the most significant commercial fish migration were set and recommendations on the fishing techniques and processing were developed.

 

1949 A fundamental work “The USSR Commercial Fish” (edited by the academ. L.S. Berg, A.S. Bogdanov, N.I. Kozhin and T.S. Rass) was issued. // A combined method (basin-pond) of sturgeon fries growing was worked out in VNIRO (N.I. Kozhin and A.V. Gofman).

 

1952 A hybrid form – bester (N.I. Nikolyukin and N.A. Timofeeva) – was created in VNIRO Saratov Branch by breeding a great sturgeon with a starlet. // G.S. Karzinkin finished the fundamental work named “The Basis of Water Bodies Biological Productivity”.

 

1953 A pilot batch of combined sonar sensors “Scorpio-1” was manufactured. They conjoined the functionality of horizontal and vertical detection. They proved high efficiency in practice while carrying out research and development work.

 

1954 Manufacturing an upgraded echo sounder “NEL-4SU” allowed searching fish swarming under a backbone. This made the start of the mass introduction of sonar fish search equipment in the fleet.

 

1955-1964

1955 USSR renewed its membership in the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). For many years VNIRO directors acted as delegates from the country and ICES vice-presidents.

 

1955-1956 First time in the world marking of grown sturgeon fries performed in VNIRO Kurin Sturgeon Factory under the guidance of G.S. Karzinkin using radioactive phosphorus (P32). Catching the marked fries showed their full vital capacity.

 

1956 VNIRO and TINRO came forward with a proposal to take urgent measures on regulation of drift-net fishery of Salmonidae in the Far Eastern Seas of the USSR and the adjacent waters of the Pacific Ocean. Introducing these measures initiated signing the Soviet and Japanese fishery convention and establishing the Soviet and Japanese commission for fishery. // N.I. Rekhina worked out the scientific basis of manufacturing protein preparations, minced fish and mince products.

 

1957-1958 Within the Program of the International Geophysical Year on the Problem of “The World Ocean Nature and Resources” VNIRO carried out comprehensive researches in the Norwegian, Greenland and Caribbean Seas, near the coast of Western Africa and the Northern Pacific Region. The data received allowed determining global consistency distribution of the primary production and zooplankton. // The necessity to prohibit marine sturgeon fishing with the purpose of preserving immature fish was scientifically justified (L.S.Berdichevsky).

 

1958-1964 The joint expedition for a comprehensive exploration and determining new areas and objects of fishery in the Bering Sea and Alaska Bay under the guidance of P.A. Moiseev and A.G. Kaganovsky discovered a significant fish and invertebrates stock. This expedition results were published in 5 volumes of VNIRO Works / TINRO News in 1964-1970s.

 

1959An experimental marine hydroacoustic station was opened in the town of Balaklava.

 

1961-1964 G.K. Izhevsky justified and proved in practice the prevailing influence of oceanological conditions on biological and fish capacity.

 

1962-1965 Exploring benthos and king crabs in the Okhotsk Sea and the western part of the Bering Sea was performed together with TINRO. A space and functional structure of a king crab population was first determined. Seasonal cycles of crabs feeding were explored and data on the areas of fries settling and development as well as ways of larva bringing were received (L.G. Vinogradov, A.A. Neyman and M.I.Tarverdiev).

 

1964 A team of researchers of VNIRO, CaspNIRO, AzNIIRH, Saratov and Volgograd branches of GosNIORH (National Research Institute of Lake and River Fisheries) guided by N.I. Kozhin, Yu.Yu. Marti and E.A.Yablonsky established the fundamentals of sturgeon fishing development based on the extensive scientific information. // The first complex Antarctic expedition of “Academician Knipovich” scientific research vessel to the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic Region was made under the guidance of Yu.Yu. Marti and D.E.Gershanovich. Studying the distribution, biology and Antarctic krill behavior and role in the Antarctic ecosystems was carried out during the expedition.

 

1965 K.A. Mrochkov, F.M. Rzhavskaya, B.S. Vasilevsky, V.V. Zaykin and A.M. Makarova worked out the technology of producing unique preparations of spermol and spermaceti from a fat bag of a cachalot head. The work was honored with a silver medal of the USSR VDNKh (All-Union Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy).

 

1965-1980

1965-1972 A series of papers devoted to biocenotic, trophological and biogeographical structure of the World Ocean was published: benthos of continental shelves (L.G. Vinogradov, A.A. Neyman, and V.N.Semenov) and plankton communities of the open ocean (N.S. Khromov and V.V. Krylov).

 

1967L.L. Lagunov and N.I. Rekhina developed a technique of manufacturing hydrolyzate from mussels possessing a radiation protective, hemastimulating and stress-relieving effect. The studies were continued by M.N. Novikova, T.V. Besedina and Yu.I. Chimirov.

 

1967 Documentation for a regular control over all operations fulfilled in fish-treating enterprises of the field which has been in force ever since was produced. The fundamental international standards GOST 7636-85 applied to the methods of analyzing source and production from hydrobionts as well as GOST 26185-84 applied to the methods of analyzing waterweeds and their derivative products were issued. A collection “Information on Nutrition and Energy Value of Products from Hydrobionts” was issued. It included about 1,000items (A.N. Golovin).

 

1968 The paper “Members of Mathematical Estimation of Results of Observation in Biological and Fishery Studies” written by Z.M. Aksyutina was issued and has become a classical and highly demanded one even at present.

 

1969 VNIRO developed a surgical method of obtaining ovulated sturgeon roes which made it possible to receive an offspring from breeding stock several times. It has since been widely used in the national and international commercial sturgeon culturing (I.A. Burtsev). // M.I. Kryuchkova and L.L. Lagunov worked out the technology of producing “Ocean” protein paste from a krill.

 

1969-1971 Under the guidance of V.P. Bykov, VNIRO specialists V.M. Bykova, L.I. Krivoscheina and L.K.Polyakova developed a new technology on products from shell-containing krill waste – chitin and chitosan; the technology of extracting the pure krill meat based on a mechanical aero-hydro-peeling. // Under the guidance of K.A. Mrochkov, B.S. Vasilevsky, N.P. Boevaya, G.V. Kovrov, G.S. Shepeleva and O.N.Permyakova solved the problem of manufacturing feed meal from krill, feed mince and pastes, // As assigned by USSR MRKh L.N. Egorova together with V.I. Tretscheva worked out the technology of special conditions glue for the needs of the electronics industry.

 

1970 A classical paper by A.V. Zasosov “The Fishery Theoretical Basis” was released.

 

1971 Due to the intensive enhancement of the expeditional researches by the USSR Ministry for Fishery in the World Ocean, a department of expedition researches and methods of exploratory fishing was established in VNIRO in order to coordinate operation of field RDI and basin departments for research and development explorations in the ocean, to plan research work and generalize the results of research and scientific and fishery work. The following people managed the department: A.A. Baral, A.S. Revin, A.I. Semenov, V.N.Kochikov and A.I. Mukhin.

 

1972 VNIRO was awarded with a jubilee Honor Badge for its achieving high results in the All-Union Socialistic Competition. // USSR joined the International Abstract Journal on Aquatic Sciences and Fishery published by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and sponsored by FAO and UNESCO. VNIRO was delegated the authorities of an international partner to ASFA. // A book by Yu.Yu. Marti “The Issues of Sturgeon Fishery Development in the Caspian Sea” was published. This book justified the possibility and reason for artificial sturgeon breeding.

 

1972 Studying commercial crabs in the Bering Sea was carried out together with TINRO. The areas of gathering of six commercial types of crabs were outlined. Differences in their feeding and confinedness of each type of crab to a certain ground and bottom configuration were determined (M.I. Tarverdieva and A.A.Neyman). // Scientists designed “Grinda”, hydra-acoustic equipment which imitated the heavy sounds of a humpback and was designed for keeping fish in a purse-seine by frightening it off a seine gate. Using this equipment made it possible to increase fishing of saury.

 

1973-1979 Together with a hydro-acoustic laboratory hydro-acoustic devices were designed. They corresponded to the international requirements: “Sargan-K”, a fish search complex; “Ugor”, fish locating station with a simultaneous all-round view; “IGEK-UM”, a trawling sonde with a cable communication line and “SKOL-2000”, a combined trawling sonde with a cable and hydro-acoustic communication line.

 

1974 A classic paper by A.I. Tretschev “The Scientific Basis of Selective FIshery” was published.

 

1976 “The Biological Ground for Fishery Forecasting”, a monograph by T.F. Dementyeva was issued. It became a handbook for a big number of various specialists connected with forecasting catching.

 

1976-1980 Scientific grounds for production of fish minces and mince products were established under the guidance of N.I. Rekhina and L.S. Abramova.

 

1977 “The Dynamics of Catching Efficiency of Bottom Trawling”, a monograph by V.N. Chestny was issued.

 

1978 The beginning of a comprehensive expedition exploration of VNIRO and other RDIs and fishery exploration units of the processes of formation of a giant “scad belt” in the Southern part of the Pacific Ocean where annual catches exceeded 1 mln tones in the 80s took place. //Under the guidance and with the direct participation of S.A. Patin, methodological instructions for the bio-testing of water were developed.// A.N. Golovin worked out scientific and practical basis for quality control and safety of fishery production.

 

1980 As assigned by the USSR Ministry for Fishery, team of VNIRO specialists (G.N. Golovkova, L.D.Kurlapova, G.A. Vaytman and V.A. Gromova) guided by L.R. Kopylenko created conservatives which then started being used to can sturgeon roes instead of banned boric preparations.

 

1981-1999

1982 VNIRO specialists took an active part in the work of the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Convention (NEAFC). // A group of specialists headed by F.M. Rzhavskaya worked out an effective method of refining medical fish oil from organochlorine pesticides using molecular distillation.

 

1983 The Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR awarded VNIRO with an Order of the Red Banner of Labor. // “Radiation Biology of Fish”, monograph by I.A. Shekhanova was issued. It became a valuable manual for a wide range of specialists in radiation biology. // Managed by B.S. Vasilevsky a new department was established. It was devoted to the issues of physical and chemical survey methods with the purpose of grounding the technologies developed and enhancing the methodological level of work in the field by training and holding seminars.

 

1983 “The Guidance on Hydro-Acoustic Shooting” was issued under the direction of K.I. Yudanov. This guidance was widely used up to the end of the century to make quantitative evaluations of hydrobionts. // The first national echo-integrator “IS-1” was designed to fulfill hydro-acoustic shooting; and later a new more advanced model “SIORS” was made.

 

1983-1986 A technology on growing mussels, designed by VNIRO specialists (M.V. Pereladov, S.A. Lavrov, S.V. Zagranichnyy and N.V. Khvatsky), was successfully trialed in a water area of the Sudak Bay (The Black Sea).

 

1985 The results of VNIRO experimental researches on developing technologies of fish marine culture, invertebrates and sea weeds were published in a special issue of “Cultivating Marine Organisms”. // T.N.Radakova, Yu.I. Gorokhov, N.A. Makarova and V.A. Alsufyev worked out the technology of a smoke flavoring preparation “VNIRO”.

 

1986 Comprehensive work on artificial black-mullet breeding was finished.

 

1987 “Signal-M”, an acoustic stimulator was designed and manufactured in order to manage fish feeding behavior.

 

1988 A technology of a new product from brown weeds – laminaran – was worked out under the guidance of Yu.G. Voronova.

 

1989 A classical paper by P.A. Moiseev “Biological Resources of the World Ocean” was issued. // A decision on “Volgo-Don” and “Volgo-Chogray” canals’ building halt was taken by the USSR Soviet of Ministers with the active participation of VNIRO specialists (N.I. Kozhin, A.F. Karpevich, L.G. Vinogradov, Yu.Yu. Marti and E.A.Yablonskaya). // A technology of processing and conservation of krill feeding products was developed.

 

1992 “Fish Hydro-Acoustic Exploration”, a monograph by K.I. Yudanov was published.

 

1993 A Test Centre for Food and Agricultural Production “VNIRO-TEST” on the base of a laboratory of physics and chemical methods of researching was established and certified in the system of the RF State Standard (L.R. Kopylenko and S.G. Kirichenko).

 

1995 Together with the limnological institute SB RAS the first large-scale hydro-acoustic shooting of omul stock in Baykal Lake was performed.

 

1996 A two-volume book of VNIRO researches on beryciformes on the underwater rising of the World Ocean (A.N. Kotlyar) was issued. // L.S. Abramova and V.V. Gershunkaya headed by N.I. Rekhina developed the technology of canned goods production of baby’s food within the Presidential Program “Children of Russia”. This program was successfully implemented and has been used up to present.

 

1997 “The Manual for Identification of Commercial and Mass Cephalopods in the World Ocean” was issued (Yu.A. Filippova, D.O. Alekseev, V.A. Bizikov and D.N. Khromov).

 

1998 In compliance with the Order of the Russian Federation Government of August 17, 1998 No. 986 VNIRO was delegated the functions of a CITES Scientific Body in the Russian Federation in relation to sturgeons. // L.A. Dushkina made conclusions of the work fulfilled in the monograph “The Biological Fundamentals of Marine Culture”. // The assemblies edited by V.P. Bykov generalized and published data on the chemical composition and techno-chemical features of marine, ocean fish, fish of inland water bodies, seaweeds, invertebrates and marine mammals.

 

1999 “The Reproductive and Quantitative Changes of Commercial Fish populations”, a classical monograph by E.M. Malkin was issued.

 

2000-2009

2000 “A Precautious Approach to the Permissible Fishing Evaluation (PFE). Analysis and Recommendations on the Use”, a classic monograph by V.K. Babayan was issued. // Three new breeds of sturgeons: “Burtsevskaya”, “Aksayskaya” and “Vnirovskaya” – were cultivated on the base of a bester; and in 2010, they were received a patent for. This patent belongs to VNIRO FSUE and their creators: V.A. Arefyev, I.A. Burtsev, V.D.Krylova, A.I. Nikolaev, N.I. Nikolyukin, E.V. Serebryakova, N.A. Timofeeva and O.P. Filippova. // Aprocedure of experimental and industrial breeding and commercial growing of pleuronectes-psetta was developed (O.N. Maslova, Yu.V. Razumeev and I.V. Burlachenko).

 

2000 A technique of producing “Khitan” a biologically active additive on the base of a nutritive chitosan was worked out. // A team of specialists guided by N.P. Boyevaya created the following biologically active additives to food based on fish oils: “Kodvitolen”, “Hydrobinol”, “Biafishenol” and “Concentrate-ω3”.

 

2001 The FAO edition published a review article by L.B. Klyashtorin on the influence of climate on the world fishing “Climate change and long-term fluctuations of commercial catches”. // It was first time that VNIRO specialists (I.A. Burtsev and A.I. Nikolaev) managed to get fish eggs from a sturgeon breeder’s stock of Volgograd Sturgeon Plant. // “The Cohort Models and Analysis of Commercial Biological Resources under the Shortage of Information”, a monograph by D.A. Vasilyev was published. // “The Data on Nutrition and Energy Value of Hydrobionts and Products Made from them to be Stated on a Packing” were published. They covered over 1,500 items.

 

2002 The book by O.F. Gritsenko “The Migratory Fish of Sakhalin Island (Classification, Ecology and Catching)” was issued. // A technique of salting ovulated sturgeon roes obtained by the intravital method was created (L.R. Kopylenko and I.L. Koryazova). Objective indexes of a processing standardization were worked out under the guidance of E.N. Kharenko.

 

2003 The procedure of certification of spawning brood sturgeon stocks and DNA identification of production from sturgeons was worked out. // The result of long-term studies in interaction of natural and plant oncorhynchus keta stocks was in the monograph by N.V. Klovach named “Ecological Consequences of an oncorhynchus keta Large-Scale Breeding”. The first version of fishery geographical informational system “KartMaster” was created.

 

2004 The rates of expenditure of raw materials in the production process using biological resources of the sea fishery, coastal catching and aquaculture were set and introduced (E.N. Kharenko, M.V. Sytova, N.N.Yarichevskaya and etc.) // A centre for molecular and genetic identification of sturgeons equipped with the system of capillary electrophoresis, sequenator and a robotic station Tecan was founded.

 

2005 A Krasnodar branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “VNIRO” in the town of Krasnodar was created. // “The Cycle Climate and Fish Capacity Changes”, a monograph by L.B. Klyashtorin and A.A. Lyubushin was issued in VNIRO publishing house. // Together with a construction agency for marine electronics “Vector” and the Department of Ultrasound and Medical Equipment at Taganrog Technological Institute of the Southern Federal University (TTI SFU) a panoramic echo sounder-vieoplotter (PEV-K) was designed and manufactured. // A.V. Podkorytova published a monograph “Seaweed-Macrophytes and Herbs” based on summarized data on raw materials, technologies and areas of use of sea brown, red and green algae and herbs.

 

2006 A summary paper “Commercial Fish of Russia” was issued in 2 volumes in the publishing house of VNIRO. This book contained information on systematic, biology and economic use of 687 types of fish (O.F.Gritsenko, A.N. Kotlyar and B.N. Kotenev). // The Russian National Collection of Standard Genetic Material (RNCSGM) containing over 25 thousand samples of hydrobionts’ tissues was established on the base of the Centre for Molecular and Genetic Identification (CMGI) at the Scientific Unit CITES. // VNIRO specialists started taking an active part in The South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO).

 

2007 Strategic areas of Russian aquiculture development were established. // “Methodology of Exploiting Spawning Brood Stock of Sturgeon Preserving the Genetic Diversity of Populations Reproduced” was prepared. // A longstanding program of comprehensive researches of the Kola Peninsula coastal ecosystems was completed (V.I. Sokolov, V.A. Shtrik and D.M. Milyutin).

 

2008 A joint Russian-Norwegian model for evaluating stocks of Norwegian spring-spawning herring TASACS was designed. It is still used by NEAFC. // “Evolution of Cephalopoda Sells”, a fundamental monograph by V.A. Bizikov was published. // The first computer programming complexes on technical standardizing were created.

 

2009 D.A. Medvedev, President of the Russian Federation, acknowledged VNIRO for a significant impact into the development of the fisheries industry. // “Regulation of Multispecies Fishing Based on the Mathematical Modelling”, monograph by T.I. Bulgakova was issued.

 

2010 – present time

2011 A procedure was worked out and recommendations were prepared concerning controlling the process of sturgeon breeders’ maturing with the use of variable lightning conditions (I.V. Burlachenko, A.S. Safronov and A.I. Nikolaev). // A technique of cooling fish using liquid ice which allows preserving its high quality for up to 20 days (E.N. Kharenko and R.V. Artemov). // A monograph by N.P. Antonov “Commercial Fish of Kamchatka Region: Biology, Stock and Catching” was issued.

 

2012 A joint monograph “The Kuril Islands Fish” containing the full information on biology, classification, distribution and reproduction of fresh water fish inhabiting the water bodies of the Kuril Islands (edited by O.F. Gritsenko) was issued.

 

2013 The stocks of opilio crabs in the Barents Sea – which was a new commercial object – were studied and recommended to be exploited together with PINRO. // The First Scientific School of Young Scientists and Specialists in Fishery and Ecology devoted to P.A. Moiseev’s 100th Anniversary took place in the town of Zvenigorod.